How do you entice the subconscious of consumers to choose your product over competitors? The underutilized answer is: packaging.
To me, packaging is a canvas, and when I look at canvases, I expect to see art-something fun, something interesting, something... disruptive.
Biometric research, including eye-tracking and facial expressions, is a useful tool to lift the veil on the truth of packaging at the point of sale - and help guide effective designs.
With e-commerce sales of grocery products predicted to grow to $18 billion by year-end 2018, CPGs struggle to understand its impact on traditional packaging supply chains.
One goal of brand owners is to attract consumers in crowded retail environments, but there are few effective ways to determine just what physically entices the customer. One method is eye tracking, a technique used to verify just how, if at all, an interaction occurs between the consumer and a product. Crown Holdings Inc. and McCall Farms, Inc. recently explored this method with the help and expertise of Clemson University.
What does a $400-billion industry and Clemson University have in common? The answer is the students and faculty of Clemson’s Sonoco Institute for Packaging Design and Graphics, which the worldwide packaging industry considers among the best evaluators of consumer perception around product packaging. Learn more about Clemson and Package InSight's relationship as they move forward with innovation.
John Kalkowski, editor in chief, Food Online interviews Dr. Hurley on packaging design, using technology in consumer research for CPG's, and how Package InSight came to be.
Clear packaging is transforming the food industry, enabling manufacturers to showcase food quality and motive purchases at the "zero moment of truth" when buyers walk supermarket aisles. This paper features an in-depth interview with Dr. R. Andrew Hurley.
Package design is an important differentiator in the competitive craft beer category, with certain labeling materials catching buyers' attention faster and driving purchase decisions, according to a recent study from Package InSight.
Dr. Andrew Hurley named to new editorial advisory board of national and private label brand owners, researchers, academics and deisgners.
Refrigerated & Frozen Foods Magazine published an article about the eye tracking study that we conducted for Klockner Pentaplast in 2014. The article details the insights that rigid thermoformed cheese packaging is preferred over flexible pouches.
Plastics News showcased how Package InSight was developed in 2014 and its relationship with Clemson University's Packaging Science Program. Comments and insights from COO, Drew Felty, and Dr. Andrew Hurley can be found throughout the article.
Packaging World published an article about an eye tracking study that Package InSight conducted for Klockner Pentaplast in 2014. The article details the insights that Klockner gained from the study and how the study was conducted.
What: The type of protective packaging selected for parcel delivery has a significant impact on the consumer experience. A breakthrough independent study conducted by Packaging Insight, used a facial camera apparatus to capture emotional response when parcels were opened.
Broad Research Question: You are going to receive a present in the mail from your distant relative. As you would in your own home, please open the package, remove and unpack the items, and discard the packaging.
Sample: 123 participants
The emotional reading (or value) for packaging peanuts indicated participants were approximately 10 times more likely to be categorized as frustrated than not frustrated.
Bubble cushioning and air pillow packaging create the least frustration.
The participants were the least irritated when disposing bubble cushioning materials.
Implications: Protective materials within parcel packaging should be a deliberate consideration for all brands delivered to the home. The study illustrates that packaging has an impact on consumer perception and human emotion. Bottom line, materials matter.
What: This white paper reports on a study conducted by Avery Dennison and Package InSight, LLC at Clemson University to examine how consumers shop for craft beer when with various label types.
Broad Research Question: How do customers react to different label types in the craft beer product category?
Sample: 193 participants
Implications: Craft brewers have unique, compelling narratives of how their breweries, recipes and processes bring the best product to thirsty consumers. By using eye-catching labels, branding and graphics, brewers can tell the story – their story – and connect with consumers and influence purchase decisions.
What: This white paper reports on a study conducted by Klöckner Pentaplast and Package InSight, LLC at Clemson University to examine the differences in how customers shop for products when they have the option for either a plastic thermoformed or plastic flexible pouch package.
Broad Research Question: How do customers react to different products when they have the option for a thermoformed or flexible pouch package?
Sample: 116 participants
Implications: This data, when combined with the above relevant findings, makes for compelling argument for why rigid thermoformed cheese packages are preferred over flexible pouches.
The Sonoco Institute of Packaging Design and Graphics at Clemson University, in partnership with R. Andrew Hurley’s research program, conducted an eye-tracking study in the CUshop Consumer Behavior Lab. The study was developed in conjunction with the Foil & Specialty Effects Association to observe the effects of foil stamping on consumer interaction and test the hypothesis that a package embellished with foil would increase attention to the product when compared to the same product without foil. Three separate packaged product categories were tested over the three-day period.
What: High Visibility enhancements are the processes applied to packaging that increase visibility and stimulate and hold attention. This study looks at the impact of foil stamping as a high visibility enhancement.
Today in the packaging market over 100 forms of foil stamping are used by consumer goods companies.
Broad Research Question: Does foil stamping impact consumer engagement during a grocery shopping experience?
Sample: 265 participants
Foil had no impact on time to first fixation
Those consumers that did fixate on the foil stamping had a longer total fixation duration compared to non-foil.
If you use foil and the consumer engages with your product they will do so for a longer period compared to non-foil.
What: This white paper reports on a study conducted by Rehrig Pacific Company and Clemson University on the effects of secondary packaging on purchase intent and consumer behavior.
Broad Research Question: A unique secondary package design with on-message, brand building color and graphics can lift brand awareness and increase purchase intent when integrated into in-store marketing campaigns.
Sample: 89 participants
It can be concluded with statistical evidence from this study that unique secondary package design with on-message, brand building color and graphics can lift brand awareness and increase purchase intent.
What: This white paper reports on a study conducted by Klöckner Pentaplast and Clemson University to examine the differences in how customers shop for products when they have the option for either a clamshell package or a printed paperboard box.
Broad Research Question: How do customers react to different products when they have the option for a clamshell or a printed paperboard box?
Sample: 68 participants
Dr. R. Andrew Hurley is an Assistant Professor of Packaging Science as well as a research associate at the Sonoco Institute of Packaging Design and Graphics at Clemson University where he is the Director of CUshop, a consumer-experience research laboratory. Dr. Hurley holds both a BS and MS in Packaging Science and a PhD in Rhetoric, Communication and Information Design. Focused on new product and package development, Dr. Hurley brings ideas to innovative, practical solutions. With state-of-the-art design and prototyping labs, consumer-experience/biometric testing (eye-tracking, GSR and EEG) and a full packaging pilot plant, concepts can be developed and brought to life in just hours. Dr. Hurley teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in Packaging Science, mentors Food Science and Culinary Arts projects and is active in the design research community. He is a noted research leader in the field of packaging design, having a variety of peer-reviewed papers, author of seven electronic training programs used by hundreds of industry professionals and has presented at many international conferences.
PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE
DECEMBER 1, 2014
Through the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, the shelf presence of full body graphic labels versus partial body graphic labels on plastic beverage bottles was examined and evaluated. Eye tracking was used to collect phenomenological data atop the stimuli, while a shopping checklist was used to collect purchase preference. A post-experiment survey was also conducted in order to gather qualitative data regarding possible purchase influences. Data revealed that both label sizes drew an equivalent amount of visual attention; however, consumers selected partial body labels more often than full body labels, regardless of the flavour of the beverage or their age group. Paper presents a unique methodology of comparing attention between the two label styles on plastic beverage bottles. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE
DECEMBER 1, 2013
Research is presented that investigates whether the amount of physical product visible from the primary display panel of a package has an effect on consumer attention and purchase decision in the category of grill ware. It is hypothesized that a package providing the most physical product exposure will be preferred by consumers over alternative structural designs. To test this, three similar products were placed in four distinct package structures varying the amount of visible product exposure (0%, 40%, 90% and 100%). The packages were positioned on the shelves of the fully immersive simulated shopping environment CUshop™. A total of 127 participants were fitted with eye-tracking glasses and presented a shopping list that included one of the three grill ware products (fork, spatula and tongs). Participants were asked to shop as they normally would, and data concerning their visual attention in the store and final purchase selection was collected. Purchase patterns showed that the packaging that revealed the most physical product possible was chosen more than the other three configurations tested. Analysis of eye-tracking data supports expected behaviour, suggesting that consumers prefer to see at least some of the product, with the 0% visible product receiving significantly fewer fixations, a slower time to first fixation and lower total fixation durations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE
NOVEMBER 1, 2013
The evaluation of package branding is important to determine its ability to connect with consumers on an emotional level. In the past, focus groups have been the traditional method used to evaluate branding; however, focus groups can be seen as an inaccurate method of gathering data due to purely qualitative data collection. This paper presents a retail shopping experiment conducted in CUShop™, a consumer experience laboratory, to determine whether consumers prefer a public label product versus a private label product, utilizing eye tracking to analyse the decision-making process. Results illustrated that purchase decision as well as time spent observing packaging indicates that participants preferred public branded packaging with respect to its private label competitor. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
AUGUST 1, 2011
This dissertation details the development of a consensus-centered strategy for managing packaging design projects that enables designers from various fields to participate (seriously play) in the development process. The Work/Flow developed was quantified though a series of empirical eye-tracking experiments to determine if objects produced through the system resulted in longer fixation durations than the control. It was determined that packages developed through the Work/Flow were significantly more persuasive than the control ( P < 0.0005).
The second experiment observed the effectiveness of designs produced through the Work/Flow in respect to the competitive retail array. Out of three product categories tested, one package was developed which garnered significantly different total fixation duration than the competition (P < 0.0005). The remaining two packages failed to significantly attract attention more than the competitive array. However, the results showed that the designs developed did not differ, and thus all designs produced through the Work/Flow were as equally as persuasive against the competition.
The dissertation details an intensive review of literature on three areas of study: serious design and play, participatory strategies, and rhetorical persuasion and seduction. The last chapter provides a detailed analysis and description of implementing the teaching and communicating the Work/Flow to professional packaging engineers, designers from various backgrounds, and academia.